First U-Boat Sunk by the U.S. Navy
On April 14, 1942, the destroyer USS Roper sank the German submarine U-85 off of the Outer Banks between Wimble Shoals and Cape Hatteras. By January 1942 there were about 19 German U-boats patrolling the Atlantic coastline—with two or three hiding at Diamond Shoals at any given time to attack ships as they rounded Cape Hatteras. At the height of what is now called the Battle of Torpedo Junction, the Germans were sinking a ship nearly every day; between freighters, tankers and passenger ships, the losses were tremendous.
At the same time, the American military was learning how to detect and defeat the U-boats. The first hit was on U-85. Navy divers surveyed the area near the wreck and attempted to salvage the ship, but efforts were not successful. Since men were needed elsewhere, the submarine was left to the elements.
The wreck was explored by recreational divers for many years. In July of 2001 divers salvaged the submarine’s Enigma machine. The Germans used this complex coding device for secret communications, especially for divulging locations of enemy vessels and supply convoys. Although it is still being conserved, the stable parts of the machine are on display at the Graveyard of the Atlantic Museum in Hatteras.
Other related resources:
- Articles related to World War II on NCpedia
- Attack!-Off the Outer Banks from the N.C. Museum of History
- Danger and Death in Torpedo Junction from the N.C. Museum of History
- In Some Foreign Field: Four British Graves and Submarine Warfare on the North Carolina Outer Banks and North Carolina and the Two World Wars from N.C. Historical Publications
- More on Torpedo Junction on Cultural Resources’s other blog
- N.C. Underwater Archaeology Branch
- War on Our Doorstep: U-Boats Off the North Carolina Coast, a video from the Story of North Carolina exhibit at the N.C. Museum of History
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